Dental Stem Cell

Dental Pulp Stem Cells, or (DPSCs) are multipotent stem cells that have the potential to differentiate into a variety of cell types.

More recently a subpopulation of dental pulp stem cells has been described as human Immature Dental Pulp Stem Cells (IDPSC).[1] There are various studies where the importance of these cells and their regenerative capacity has been demonstrated. Through the addition of tissue-specific cytokines, differentiated cells were obtained in vitro from these cells, not only of mesenchymal linage but also of endo- and ecto-dermal linage. Among them are the IPS, MAPCs cells.

Several publications have stressed the importance of the expression of pluripotentiality associated markers: the transcription factors Nanog, Sox2, Oct3/4, SSEA4, CD13, are indispensable for the stem cells to divide indefinitely without affecting their differentiation potential, i.e., maintaining their self-renovation capacity. The quantification of protein expression levels in these cells is very important in order to know their pluripotentiality level, as described in some publications.

Atari M et al, established a protocol for isolating and identifying the subpopulations of pluripotent- like stem cells from the dental pulp (DPPSC) These cells are SSEA4+, OCT3/4+, NANOG+, SOX2+, LIN28+, CD13+, CD105+, CD34-, CD45-, CD90+, CD29+, CD73+, STRO1+ and CD146-, and they show genetic stability in vitro based on genomic analysis with a newly described CGH technique.

DPPSCs were able to form both embryoid bodies-like structures (EBs) in vitro and teratoma-like structures that contained tissues derived from all three embryonic germ layers when injected in nude mice. DPPSCs can differentiate in vitro into tissues that have similar characteristics to mesoderm, endoderm and ectoderm layers.